Three days before the trial, however, the Allies liberated the town where she was held prisoner, thereby saving her life. The hopes of the White Rose members that the defeat at Stalingrad would incite German opposition against the Nazi regime and its war did not come true. On the contrary, Nazi propaganda used the defeat to call on the German people to embrace " Total War ". Coincidentally, on 18 February , the same day that saw the arrests of Sophie and Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels delivered his Sportpalast speech , and he was enthusiastically applauded by his audience.
Shortly after the arrest of the Scholl siblings and Christoph Probst, newspapers published all-points bulletins in search of Alexander Schmorell. On 22 February , the students of Munich were assembled, and officially protested against the " traitors " who came from within their ranks.
Gestapo and Nazi jurisdiction documented in their files their view of the White Rose members as "traitors and defeatists ". Further prosecutions took place until the end of World War II, and German newspapers continued to report, mostly in brief notes, that more people had been arrested and punished. On 15 March , a report by the Sicherheitsdienst of the Schutzstaffel stated that rumors about the leaflets spread "considerable unrest " amongst the German population.
The report expressed particular concern about the fact that leaflets were not handed in to the Nazi authorities by their finders as promptly as they used to be in the past.
Soviet Army propaganda issued a leaflet, wrongly attributed by later researchers to the National Committee for a Free Germany , in honour of the White Rose's fight for freedom. For many years the primary sources for research were limited to those provided by White Rose members and their supporters.
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These included Inge Scholl 's commemorative book "The White Rose",  , surviving copies of the pamphlets, the letters and diaries of Sophie and Hans Scholl  and Willi Graf,  and other people with direct knowledge of the group's activities. The interrogation protocols were part of the Volksgerichtshof documents, and were confiscated by the Soviet Red Army, and brought to Moscow.
Here, they were kept secret in a special archive. After the foundation of the German Democratic Republic, the major part of the Nazi documents were handed over to the East German government, except the documents concerning Alexander Schmorell, who was born in Russia. With the German reunification , the documents were transferred to the Federal Archive of Germany in Berlin, and finally published.
With the fall of Nazi Germany, the White Rose came to represent opposition to tyranny in the German psyche and was lauded for acting without interest in personal power or self-aggrandizement. Their story became so well known that the composer Carl Orff claimed falsely by some accounts    to his Allied interrogators that he was a founding member of the White Rose and was released. He was personally acquainted with Huber, but there is no evidence that Orff was ever involved in the movement.
The fountain in front of the university is dedicated to Hans and Sophie Scholl. The other, across the street, is dedicated to Professor Huber. Many schools, streets, and other places across Germany are named in memory of the members of the White Rose. Likewise, the asteroid Weisse Rose is named after the group. The following is a non-exhaustive chronological account of some of the more notable treatments of the White Rose in media, book and artistic form.
He was executed by the Nazi regime during time of war. Joan Chen born April 26, is a Chinese American actress, film director, screenwriter, and film producer. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The Order of the Lion of Finland was founded on September 11, It was introduced in an effort to preserve the prestige of the Order of the White Rose of Finland, which could have been diminished if granted too frequently, and to facilitate the awarding of honours for various types of merit.
The Lion of Finland is awarded for civilian and military merit. The ribbon for all classes of insignia is dark red. The Order of the White Rose of Finland was established by Gustaf Mannerheim in his capacity as regent temporary head of state on January 28, The name comes from the nine roses argent in the coat of arms of Finland.
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The order's rules and regulations were confirmed on May 16, , and its present rules date from June 1, The revised scale of ranks was confirmed most recently in The original decorations were designed by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The swastikas of the collar were replaced by fir crosses in , designed by heraldic artist Gustaf von Numers. The honour can be granted for military as well as civilian merit. The ribbon for all classes is ultramarine. The Collar is worn four centimetres from either side and hangs at equal distances at the front and back.
The Grand Cross and Commander marks are awarded with a breast star. Starting in the competition ran, with the exception of to , until the —93 season, when it folded due to fixture congestion. In , the competition was relaunched as a pre-season tournament. The competition was open to all senior member clubs of the Rugby Football League in Yorkshire and was normally played in the opening months of the season. On two occasions, —19 and —41 the competition was held towards the end of the season due the two world wars.
During the Second World War the Lancashire Cup was not played for between and and several Lancashire clubs were admitted into the Yorkshire Cup competition instead. The cup finals in , and were played over two legs with the winner being determined by aggregate score over the two matches.
Between and a trophy, called the White Rose Trophy, was awarded to the man of the match in each final. The judging was conducted by members of the press. Robin Hood Energy is a not-for-profit energy company launched in September by Nottingham City Council as a competitor to the "big six" energy suppliers in the United Kingdom. The company supplies gas and electricity nationally to homes and businesses. She was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich LMU with her brother, Hans.click
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As a result, she was executed by guillotine. Since the s, Scholl has been extensively commemorated for her anti-Nazi resistance work. It is about the last days in the life of Sophie Scholl, a year-old member of the anti-Nazi non-violent student resistance group the White Rose, part of the German Resistance movement. The White Rose is a American silent drama film directed by D. The Tudor rose sometimes called the Union rose is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of Lancaster and the House of York.
The Tudor rose consists of five white inner petals, representing the House of York, and five red outer petals to represent the House of Lancaster and its superiority to the House of York. It is a symbol to show the battle of the roses. It was released by the state-owned Hungarian film industry during the Hungarian Soviet Republic, although production had begun before the regime came to power. Korda went on to make two further films for the Soviet government Yamata and Ave Caesar!
It spans two floors and is near the M motorway. It takes its name from the White Rose of York, the traditional symbol of Yorkshire. The Upper Level houses the centre's food court as well as retail outlets. The centre has 4, free car parking spaces, security and on-site Police officers.
Although the centre is smaller than other out-of-town shopping centres, it has attracted large retailers such as Next and Marks and Spencer. The south part of the centre was re-developed in downsizing the Sainsbury's Savacentre to a regular Sainsbury's which made space for other units. To coincide with its tenth year of trading the White Rose Centre was rebranded. Its logo, advertising, signage and staff uniforms were redesigned. The centre is managed and mainly by Land Securities and Evans of Leeds.
It was only played in The band was named after the German anti-Nazi resistance movement White Rose. It linked Middlesbrough with the City of Kingston upon Hull via the North York Moors, the Vale of York, the Yorkshire Wolds, a distance of miles km and in some descriptions continued to Hornsea on the coast miles km. A map and guide for the route were published in and The route is no longer branded as the White Rose Route.
The White Rose of York also called the Rose alba or rose argent , a white heraldic rose, is the symbol of the House of York and has since been adopted as a symbol of Yorkshire as a whole. It was featured in the Governments plans for the railway in November and in July further details were revealed as part of the Connecting Leeds Vision with the consultation inviting opinions from the general public.
The proposed station would serve the White Rose Centre and the Millshaw Business Park, and its location would be 2, feet m south of Cottingley railway station. The council are considering whether to retain Cottingley station or to close it, if and when, White Rose opens. The shattering German defeat at Stalingrad at the beginning of February provided the occasion for the group's sixth leaflet, written by Huber. Headed "Fellow students," it announced that the "day of reckoning" had come for "the most contemptible tyrant our people has ever endured.
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On 18th February , the same day that Nazi propaganda minister Josef Goebbels called on the German people to embrace total war in his Sportpalast speech, the Scholls brought a suitcase full of leaflets to the university. They hurriedly dropped stacks of copies in the empty corridors for students to find when they flooded out of lecture rooms. Leaving before the class break, the Scholls noticed that some copies remained in the suitcase and decided it would be a pity not to distribute them. They returned to the atrium and climbed the staircase to the top floor, and Sophie flung the last remaining leaflets into the air.
This spontaneous action was observed by the custodian Jakob Schmid. The police were called and Hans and Sophie were taken into Gestapo custody. The other active members were soon arrested, and the group and everyone associated with them were brought in for interrogation.
The Scholls and Probst were the first to stand trial before the Volksgerichtshof —the People's Court that tried political offenses against the Nazi German state—on February 22, They were found guilty of treason and Roland Freisler, head judge of the court, sentenced them to death. The three were executed by guillotine. All three were noted for the courage with which they faced their deaths, particularly Sophie, who remained firm despite intense interrogation.
White Rose: The German Anti-Nazi Activists Beheaded in 1943
Reports that she arrived at the trial with a broken leg from torture are false. Sophie told Freisler during the trial, "You know as well as we do that the war is lost. Why are you so cowardly that you won't admit it? The second White Rose trial took place on April 19, Only eleven had been indicted before this trial. At the last minute, the prosecutor added Traute Lafrenz who was considered so dangerous she was to have had a trial all to herself , Gisela Schertling, and Katharina Schueddekopf.
None had an attorney.
Related Third White Rose Trial: July 13, 1943. Eickemeyer, Söhngen, Dohrn, and Geyer.
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