Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture)

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1934 Hitler declared Führer: video transcript

Others include the additional five million non-Jewish victims, bringing the total to about 11 million. The Eastern European Jewish population was particularly hard hit, being reduced by ninety percent. Judaism, Christianity , and Islam have traditionally taught that God is omniscient all-knowing , omnipotent all-powerful , and omnibenevolent all-good in nature. However, these views are in apparent contrast with the injustice and suffering in the world. Monotheists seek to reconcile this view of God with the existence of evil and suffering. In so doing, they are confronting what is known as the problem of evil.

Within all of the monotheistic faiths many answers theodicies have been proposed. In light of the magnitude of depravity seen in the Holocaust, many people have also re-examined classical views on this subject. A common question raised in Holocaust theology is "How can people still have any kind of faith after the Holocaust? Orthodox Jews have stated that the fact that the Holocaust happened does not diminish the belief in God. For a creation will never be able to fully grasp the creator, just as a child in an operating theater can not fathom why men are cutting up a live man's body.

As the grand Lubavitcher Rebbe once told Elie Weisel that after witnessing the holocaust and realising how low man can steep, who can we trust, if not God? Nevertheless, Orthodox Judaism does encourage us to pray and cry out to God, and complain to him how he lets bad things happen. Theodor Adorno commented that "writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric," [23] and the Holocaust has indeed had a profound impact on art and literature, for both Jews and non-Jews.

Some of the more famous works are by Holocaust survivors or victims, such as Elie Wiesel , Primo Levi , Viktor Frankl and Anne Frank , but there is a substantial body of literature and art in many languages. Indeed, Paul Celan wrote his poem Todesfuge [24] as a direct response to Adorno's dictum.

With the aging population of Holocaust survivors, there has been increasing attention in recent years to preserving the memory of the Holocaust. The result has included extensive efforts to document their stories, including the Survivors of the Shoah project and Four Seasons Documentary, [25] as well as institutions devoted to memorializing and studying the Holocaust , including Yad Vashem in Israel and the US Holocaust Museum. The historic tale of the Danish Jews fleeing to Sweden by fishing boat is recounted in an award-winning American children's novel.

Huge amounts of works of art were looted by the Nazis from Jewish art collectors and dealers, either through outright theft or fire sales under extreme duress. Thus, any work of art that existed prior to has a potential provenance problem. This is a serious obstacle for anyone who currently collects pre European art. To avoid wasting thousands or even millions of dollars, they must verify normally with the assistance of an art historian and a lawyer specializing in art law that potential acquisitions were not stolen by the Nazis from a Holocaust victim.

The highest-profile legal case arising from this problem is the U. Supreme Court decision of Republic of Austria v. Altmann , in which the Court held that U. In the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, the Jewish Agency led by Chaim Weizmann submitted to the Allies a memorandum demanding reparations to Jews by Germany but it received no answer. West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer accepted these terms and declared he was ready to negotiate other reparations. These reparations were sometimes criticized in Israel where they were seen as "blood money".

While the restitution movements of the mids reunited some families with their stolen property, Holocaust remembrance also served as an important part of the reparation and restitution movement. The main idea of Holocaust remembrance comes from Dan Diner's article "Restitution and Memory: The Holocaust in European Political Cultures" which is the idea that Europe is now bound together by a collective memory of the Holocaust.

This unified memory is one of the main reasons Diner lists for the flourishing of the restitution movement of the mids, following that of the initial movement immediately after World War II. This unified memory allowed for all European countries to come together after such a tragic event to establish the Holocaust at its center as one the most damaging occurrences of the 20th century leading to a greater consciousness and awareness of this horrific event, in addition, to beginning countless discourses on the topic.

Aftermath of the Holocaust

Immediately after the Holocaust, countries such as the United States were preoccupied with the Cold War, whereas countries like Germany were controlled by foreign powers, and the Holocaust was not the main concern. Only as time went on did Europe begin to understand the importance of restitution and reparations. As the restoration of property increased, an increase in the memories for Holocaust survivors was found to be a direct correlation. The connection between property and memory proved to be a key in unlocking more details about the Holocaust, further adding to this collective European memory, and thereby increasing and furthering the restitution movement.

The day had already been observed as Holocaust Memorial Day a number of countries. Holocaust denial is the claim that the genocide of Jews during World War II —usually referred to as the Holocaust [35] —did not occur in the manner and to the extent described by current scholars.

History of the Jews in Hungary

Key elements of this claim are the rejection of the following: that the Nazi government had a policy of deliberately targeting Jews and people of Jewish ancestry for extermination as a people; that between five and seven million Jews [35] were systematically killed by the Nazis and their allies; and that genocide was carried out at extermination camps using tools of mass murder , such as gas chambers. Many Holocaust deniers do not accept the term "denial" as an appropriate description of their point of view, and use the term Holocaust revisionism instead.

Most Holocaust denial claims imply, or openly state, that the Holocaust is a hoax arising out of a deliberate Jewish conspiracy to advance the interest of Jews at the expense of other peoples. According to German-British journalist Alan Posener , " Astor, Maggie 12 April The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 23 January External links, references, and other resources are listed at Holocaust resources.

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Allied response. Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations.

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Holocaust survivors Deportations of French Jews to death camps. Functionalism versus intentionalism. Days of remembrance Memorials and museums Righteous Among the Nations. Main article: Holocaust survivors. Main article: Sh'erit ha-Pletah. Main article: Holocaust theology. Main article: The Holocaust in art and literature.

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See also: List of companies involved in the Holocaust. Main article: Yom HaShoah. Main articles: Holocaust denial and Historical negationism. See also: Criticism of Holocaust denial. Retrieved February 23, Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity and Culture.

SAGE Publications. Niewyk and Francis R. Nicosia The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved January 23, Archived from the original on Memorial de la Shoah. Archived from the original PDF on 2 December Retrieved November 19, New German Critique 90 : 36— See the appropriate section of the Holocaust article. First, they contend that, while mass murders of Jews did occur although they dispute both the intentionality of such murders as well as the supposed deservedness of these killings , there was no official Nazi policy to murder Jews.

Second, and perhaps most prominently, they contend that there were no homicidal gas chambers, particularly at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where mainstream historians believe over 1 million Jews were murdered, primarily in gas chambers. Deniers float numbers anywhere between , and 1. Retrieved December 18, Retrieved June 28, Scientific evidence proves that gas chambers could not have been used to kill large numbers of people.

The Nazi command had a policy of deporting Jews, not exterminating them. Some deliberate killings of Jews did occur, but were carried out by the peoples of Eastern Europe rather than the Nazis. Jews died in camps of various kinds, but did so as the result of hunger and disease. The Holocaust is a myth created by the Allies for propaganda purposes, and subsequently nurtured by the Jews for their own ends. The confessions of former Nazis to war crimes were extracted through torture. Retrieved May 16, "The deniers' selection of the name revisionist to describe themselves is indicative of their basic strategy of deceit and distortion and of their attempt to portray themselves as legitimate historians engaged in the traditional practice of illuminating the past.

Retrieved June 12, Ilse Aichinger b. She was among the first Austrian authors to write literature about the effects of antisemitism on the victims of the Holocaust and, as such, came under harsh criticism in her own country. Born to an assimilated Jewish family in Lublin, and active in the Polish resistance, Anna Langfus draws on her experiences in creating novels and stories about the Holocaust. Writing in French, the language of her adopted country after the war, Langfus explores issues of loss, devastation, hopelessness and tormented memories.

Several works of fiction offer realistic depictions of life and death in labor and concentration camps. Sara Nomberg-Przytyk — , a Polish survivor of Auschwitz, utilized her own experiences and observations to write the fictionalized set of autobiographical short stories contained in Auschwitz: True Tales from a Grotesque Land. Nomberg-Przytyk presents a complex sense of the range of human behavior in a context that allowed only very limited choices.

In contrast to works that focus on the Holocaust and offer realistic detail, some survivors rarely mention the Holocaust explicitly in their novels and stories. Yet the radical losses of the Nazi genocide may be seen to shape their fictional works. For example, the work of Israeli writer Shulamith Hareven , who was born in Warsaw and immigrated as a child to Palestine, reflects this tendency.

Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture) Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture)
Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture) Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture)
Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture) Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture)
Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture) Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture)
Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture) Thinking about the Holocaust: After Half a Century (Jewish Literature and Culture)

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