The Spanish and the Portuguese still follow instructions from Rome. This competition stimulates their zeal. They use mainly African middlemen who know the aboriginal cosmology well Thornton and can interpret the Christian discourse in a parallel sense cf. That makes the conversions quicker on board, and facilitates assimilation. This word "assimilation" is indeed a unilateral concept, or may be bilateral, conveying a different meaning on each side: a dominating maneuver, on the one hand, a self-immunizing absorption, on the other. But, of course, the work is less thorough than on the African continent.
It is more or less considered as an administrative immigration formality. So, for colonists with a Latin mentality, slavery is a business coupled with a religious ideology for circumstantial political reasons, whereas for the Dutch who are indeed not in the camp of Rome , it is mainly an economic activity.
We now approach the phase of the forced settlement of a mixed population in the West Indies. In , writes Metraux, 20 , the king of Dahomey "emptied" the territory of Ouidah called Juda in travel accounts. He sold about ten thousand slaves per year. Later on, that number was doubled, and six to eight thousand of these slaves were set apart for the French West Indies Roland According to P.
John Thornton insists on the triple origin of the religious feelings 91 reported by a Jesuit missionary in Saint-Domingue beginning of the 18th century. He writes about animist Congolese, who were actually converted to Christianity, even if they did not apprehend the faith clearly; Senegalese, who were Moslems, and the Ardas from Arada or Allada, a Dahomean city, capital of a kingdom that played a major part in the evolution of Voodoo , who were animists and practiced the cult of the Snake. The Ardas have a common language: Fon. So, there is a monotheistic rather recent and artificial Christian community, another more specifically characterized because better settled and more ancient monotheistic group: the Moslems, and finally: an animistic majority.
In the French territory of Saint-Domingue, they are ruled by the Code Noir Black Code, promulgated on the 10th of March , article 2 of which prescribes baptism. Thebaud Migration generated the congruence of different tendencies in the cults: cult of Death Congo and Ibo , ritual possession by deities Fon , monotheism of Olorun associated with the polytheism of Orisha deified heroes or kings among the Yoruba group.
In that composite frame, the Dahomean religious architecture plays a major part in what we might dare to call its "reengineering". We should nevertheless be clear about what Thornton 88 calls a kind of "convergence of concepts and beliefs": the language of Voodoo, its structure, its own dynamics, fully modified the sense and meaning of the Catholic material which the hounfort Voodoo temple absorbed as in an immunization process.
As Apollon emphasizes, the slaves "took possession of objects, held a symbolic land and a ritual," and adapted them, so that they could "be reorganized, reused as tools for other purposes. Of course, religion Latin: religare is a way of binding over again. Actually, the whole African population, compelled into a barbarous exile, lost its social structure. On the continent, the main bond was lineage, descent. Migration broke the lineage through dispersion.
In the colony, the religious coherence was diminished. The Bantus could just keep the animistic aspect of their rites, whereas Fons and Yorubas held on to the mythology. How to neutralize Santeria and Voodoo Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. Happy reading How to neutralize Santeria and Voodoo Bookeveryone. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats.
Obeah: Resurgence of Jamaican 'Voodoo'? To report this review as inappropriate, please complete this short form.. How to neutralize Santeria and Voodoo This comparison reflects a symmetric concept based on another socio-economic level: the Christian monotheistic God on one side, the polytheistic Voodoo on the other. Table of contents The Voodoo cross is the intersection between the four cardinal points and the crossroads of the terrestrial world horizontal axis and of La Ville aux Camps, an underground mythic land vertical axis.
Guide How to neutralize Santeria and Voodoo
Population Policy and the U. Possessives and Beyond: Semantics and Syntax. Bretton Woods: Birth of a Monetary System. They see the chaos and horror surrounding them, and realize that dealing with it requires action, not words and simple rituals. Many of this generation of Initiates were exposed to the spirit world by circumstances, not ritual.
Most of these incidents involved torture, violence and near-death experiences, many of which were caused by the depredations of the Corruptors. These Initiates have met the enemy face to face, and will not stop until they have dealt with it. The traditional houngans and santeros look upon these Initiates with a mixture of concern, annoyance, fear… and hope. Some of them have left their beloved hounfors and their position in communities that accept and appreciate them, and gone into alien lands to help their successors with their war.
Others have all but disowned the rebels. A few large organizations have been formed in recent times, and are gathering support and momentum every day. The Protectors These Initiates operate mostly in the U. They are the sons and daughters of Haitian or Cuban emigrants who have knowledge of Voodoo theology and a Western education and world view, and they have combined the two in ways that often anger traditional Voudounistas.
The Protectors concentrate on the fight against the Corruptors. Their goal is to clean up the slums of North America and to mend the ills of the Caribbean islands. Their weapons are Voodoo rituals, Initiate powers and political activism. Many of their members have become local and even national representatives, trying to achieve change through the system. Some of the more radical Protectors have lost faith in the system, however; they use all the means at their disposal to attack the sources of evil directly.
Some of them worked with the Black Panthers and other extremist groups. Others continue their work in more covert ways. The Protectors have streamlined Voodoo trappings and rituals. They recruit Initiates from all walks of life, and are less concerned with racial heritage than with political correctness although some of the most radical factions are rabidly ethnocentric. Their hounfors contain a minimal amount of ritual symbols and decorations, but they seem to attract loas anyway.
The Protectors hold no festivals or holidays, which are for the benefit of believers, not houngans. Unlike traditional houngans, the Protectors do not reveal themselves openly; they keep their mystic knowledge secret, much like the European Lodges. In this and other ways, the Protectors are clearly the most Westernized of all Voodoo societies, and are usually accused of being tools of the Lodges. In fact, they have formed tentative alliances with the Schismatics see p. They have also joined forces with individual members of the Servants of Hecate see sidebar, p. Among Voodoo societies, the Protectors and the Loa Lords are common allies, and they often work with the more traditional Lucumi.
The Protectors are organized in chapters. Each chapter is in charge of a city or state; currently there are 17 chapters in the U. Each chapter may have as few as one or as many as a dozen hounfors.
Each hounfor operates alone, investigating unusual occurrences and attempting to deal with them. There are two levels of membership: Associates and Agents.
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Associates are usually nonInitiated people who act as informants, assistants and occasionally muscle. Agents are full-fledged members almost exclusively Initiates who form the actual hounfors. Many Associates work for utility companies, police and fire departments, and other services that put them in places where they can provide surveillance and information.
Unless the hounfor needs immediate assistance, hounfor leaders report their activities to chapter heads once every few months. The Electric Crossroads Traditionally, Voodoo and witchcraft ceremonies were conducted in crossroads some say for mystical reasons, while others claim that the crossroads provided many avenues of escape in case of discovery.
As the first pathways of the electronic superhighway are being laid out, the more tech-oriented Voodoo Initiates have staked out a portion of cyberspace as their own. The island is the poorest and least educated land of the Western Hemisphere, a stark legacy of slavery and colonialism.
Some of the most powerful Initiates in the world dwell on isolated hills, living in primitive conditions as they work rituals that can affect whole continents. As a symbol for African-Americans, Haiti is both an example and a terrible warning. According to the tale, Haiti fell under the sway of a powerful Corruptor, a being of such might that its name remains unknown, perhaps forever unknowable.
In , a houngan called Boukman led a massive slave uprising against the northern settlements. The Lodge Initiates in the city were mostly members of the French Royalist Lodge, who had come to Haiti to escape the debacle of the French Revolution. They did their best to stop the attackers, but their spirit servants were destroyed or put to flight by the veritable army of loas that Boukman and his houngans had raised.
As the loas steadily wore down the mystic wards placed around the city, the desperate Europeans used forbidden rituals that included the sacrifice of 13 men, women and children, all slaves. The ritual made contact with a Mayombe spirit of incredible power. Many of the lower-level Initiates in the ritual circle died on the spot, or were driven mad by the sight of the entity.
The rest appealed to the being for help. The entity agreed, on the condition that the Initiates grant it the right to dwell within the island. Faced with the threat of thousands of rebel slaves crying for their blood, the surviving Initiates agreed.
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But, incredibly, the charms stopped working. Warriors who had been promised protection tumbled to the ground, shot dead. The amazed houngans tried to summon their loas — and failed; something had scared them away. The attack broke up, and the demoralized rebels were butchered by the colonists, who killed five blacks for every white who had died, making little distinction between rebels and innocent people of the wrong color.
As a huge Napoleonic army prepared to crush the Haitian Revolution 11 years later, a group of desperate houngans also turned away from their traditional loas and appealed to a greater power. Although they did not know it, the entity that responded to their summons was the same one that had assisted the Frenchmen at Cape Francois. A similar deal was made, and the Corruptor had leave to stay in Haiti from both the white and black inhabitants.
Haiti was freed, but at a terrible price. Its land was tainted, perhaps forever, by the presence of a Corruptor. As a result of the two pacts, its influence is now deeply entrenched in the island, from which waves of evil energy wash upon the shores of the Americas, Europe and Africa. This tale is repeated by the Lucumi Society see p.
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